BIM (LOD) 100 – 500 in Construction Project LifecycleBIM Implementation 3D / VDC Operation
A common process through which the construction industry is using LOD (Level of Development) is by categorizing the LOD numbers as LOD 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500. Initially, Vico Software entitled the system as “Level of Detail” and provided the acronym LOD. The system has been standardized by the American Institute of Architects (AIA), renaming to Level of development (LOD). The name change emphasized the significance of geometric facets and the BIM content of each element.
What is LOD?
LOD is a conception with variable definitions and implementations that defines the content and reliability of BIM (Building Information Modeling) elements at various stages or milestones. The content refers to the geometric information, structured data, and related documentation. The level of development of a BIM model denotes the amount of information associated with concrete project development and essential for making tangible decisions. The level of detail entitles the whole amount of information contained by the BIM element.
Benefits of LOD:
- LOD Specification facilitates AEC professionals to stipulate and articulate with a high level of clarity and consistency of Building Information Models at numerous stages in the design and construction process.
- The LOD Structure addresses the issues confronted by AEC professionals through providing an industry-developed standard to define the state of development of numerous systems within BIM. The standard eases consistency in project communication and execution by facilitating the comprehensive delineation of BIM deliverables.
LOD 100 - Conceptual Designing StageThe creation of a 3D model at LOD 100 represents the information on the basic level. Hence, conceptual model creation is possible at this stage. Parameters such as area, volume, height, location, and orientation are demarcated.
LOD 200 - Schematic Design StageLOD 200 is a general model where elements are modeled with accurate quantities, shape, size, location, and alignment. Non-geometric information can also be incorporated into the model at this stage.
LOD 300 - the Stage of Detailed DesignIt is the stage of creating accurate model and shop drawings where elements are delineated with specific information about assemblies, magnitude, size, location, and orientation. At this level, non- geometric data can be assigned to the model elements.
LOD 350 – Stage of Construction DocumentationAt this level, the model detail and elements represent the building elements interface with various systems with graphics and written definitions.
LOD 400 - Fabrication & AssemblyLOD 400 is the level, where elements are modeled as specific assemblies, with comprehensive information like fabrication, assembly, and details about the size, quantity, shape, orientation & location. Non- geometric data to the model elements can also be included at this stage.
LOD 500 - As-Built Stage of ModelingLOD 500 corresponds to the As-Built Stage of Modeling, where elements are created as built assemblies for the sake of maintenance & operations. Actual & accurate non-geometric information can be attached to the modeled elements like the shape, size, location, quantity & orientation.